Necropolis [The Written Word Book Seven]

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In truth it was a time when the former empire was much diminished in size, its regional provinces having all broken away as independent states. Delhi was rather less important politically than the neighbouring sultanates of Jaunpur, Malwa and Gujarat, or the Rajput kingdom of Mewar. The centre meanwhile witnessed a series of palace coups and the ever-dwindling authority of the sultan. The second ruler of the dynasty, Mubarak Shah, was assassinated in Whether or not he intended to invite ridicule, he certainly received it. Even this was too much for Shah Alam to handle, plagued as he was by a duplicitous prime minister named Hamid Khan.

In the end Shah Alam abdicated in favour of one of the nobles, Bahlul Lodi, who disposed of Hamid and—with the cooperation of other nobles whose confidence he won—slowly began to rebuild the empire. Of Afghan descent and humble beginnings, Bahlul Lodi r.

Rather than using a throne, he sat on a carpet with the nobles and refused to allow any discrimination between himself and them or his former fellow officers in the army. He had a fixed daily routine, rising early, spending the morning on official business, the afternoon in the company of religious scholars and the evening in his harem. After a reign of nearly forty years, he was succeeded by his son Sikander Lodi r.

Sikander seems to have kept up the austerity to some degree. One contemporary observer reports that he wore simple clothes and refused to wear new ones unless the old were torn. Ibrahim had a reputation for piety but, with a penchant for dancing girls and astrologers, was perhaps beginning to let things slide.

The Necropolis Railway, by Andrew Martin

There were always factions at court, and in the end one of these brought the Lodis down. They wrote to Babur, a descendant of Timur, to suggest that he might like to come to India and claim his rightful inheritance. As with the Sayyids, no great forts or palaces are attributed to Lodi patronage. A few elegant mosques date from the later Lodi period, but mostly what survives are tombs—as pointed out by the merciless Percy Brown.

In fact, tombs became even more numerous and conspicuous because the nobles built theirs as grandly as the sultans. The fine octagonal tomb of Sikander Lodi stands close to, and stylistically resembles, that of Muhammad Shah Sayyid.

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There are several layers to this space. There is evidence that it really was a garden in Lodi times so the current name is perfectly just but all trace of it vanished long ago, and by the nineteenth century it was the site of a village called Khairpur.

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When New Delhi was first laid out in the s, the city stopped just short of the village, to the north; but in the poor villagers were evicted and the whole area was landscaped in English picturesque mode to create a London-style urban park, named after the then vicereine Lady Willingdon Park. Her name survives, carved in a stone gateway on the northern side. But only there.

In the s, Jawaharlal Nehru commissioned the architect Joseph Allen Stein to adjust the landscaping. The pond was added and the gardens were renamed after the Lodis, the original proprietors. There is a puzzle about this place. The question is whether it was originally intended as a tomb or as a gateway.

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  4. The Bara Gumbad clearly fits this general format, but which was it meant to be? Opponents of the gate theory pertinently ask: gateway into what? Being so large it is out of proportion as an entrance to the elaborately decorated but modestly sized mosque and the simple mihman-khana guest hall that are attached to it, one on either side; while it is well known that a mosque and a hall are often found near major tombs a later example being the buildings flanking the Taj Mahal in Agra. So it must be a tomb.

    On the other hand, the argument against it being a tomb is simply that there is no grave, nor any evidence of there ever having been one.

    Controversy in the Lodi Gardens: when Delhi was termed a necropolis

    This is only the beginning of a new discovery. Mostafa Waziri, the head of the archaeological dig, said he was very excited about the contents of the site. He said he and his colleagues have uncovered eight tombs so far. He expects many more to be found soon. The tombs contain a wealth of historic treasures. One tomb includes more than 1, statues and four pottery jars that contain the remains of the internal organs of important ancient Egyptians.

    Mr Waziri also said there were 40 sarcophagi. A sarcophagus is a stone coffin in which dead bodies were placed. Waziri hopes the new site will help to attract more tourists to Egypt. There has been a downturn in tourism since the revolution that took place there in Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more.

    Please enjoy Change partners often and share your findings. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life? Change topics and partners frequently. Change partners again and talk about your conversations. What do you want to know? Complete this table with your partner s.

    Change partners often and share what you wrote. SAND: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "sand". Share your words with your partner s and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories. Put the best artifacts to find in an archaeological dig at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their artifacts.

    The Necropolis Railway, by Andrew Martin | Vulpes Libris

    Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these and why : manuscripts, weapons or jewellery. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these and why : statues, weapons or jewellery. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these and why : manuscripts, statues or jewellery.

    Check your answers.

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    5. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

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      In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:.

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      Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers. Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.