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According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-like. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.

This is known as neutral point of view NPOV. Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.

Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: this begins with " administrator ", [] [] privileged users who can delete pages, prevent articles from being changed in case of vandalism or editorial disputes setting protective measures on articles , and try to prevent certain persons from editing. Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent certain persons from making disruptive edits such as vandalism.

Fewer editors become administrators than in years past, in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous.

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Bureaucrats name new administrators solely upon the recommendations from the community. Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semi-formal dispute resolution process to assist in such circumstances. In order to determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums, [note 6] or seek outside input through third opinion requests or by initiating a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted, [] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate.

Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies for example, if the new content is considered biased.

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Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings. Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "Talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.


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Wikipedia's community has been described as cult -like, [] although not always with entirely negative connotations. Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.

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Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification. The English Wikipedia has 5,, articles, 37,, registered editors, and , active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days. Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments , may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions.

Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references". A study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia [ A study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others, [] [] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.

Several studies have shown that most of the Wikipedia contributors are male.

Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown , gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology. There are currently language editions of Wikipedia also called language versions , or simply Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

Distribution of the 51,, articles in different language editions as of October 7, []. Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries as is the case for the English edition. These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences e. Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language". They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects Wikipedia and others. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. A study published by PLoS ONE in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. On March 1, , The Economist , in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years.

The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down.

The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in at approximately 50, and dropping to 30, by the start of Should attrition continue unabated at the quoted trend rate of approximately 20, editors lost within a seven-year stretch, by there will be only 10, active editors on English Wikipedia.

Several Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation , which includes over 50 policies and nearly , words as of [update]. Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In , columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticized Wikipedia for being a mixture of "truth, half truth, and some falsehoods". Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black noted in and respectively how articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic. In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it. Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true, after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia.

However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites, and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them. Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable. Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls , spammers , and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia. Katherine Maher , the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell , cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources". Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ; [] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.

In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change. On March 5, , Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' 1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information.

In , researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination. Roy Rosenzweig , a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.


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  5. Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill , he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians [ Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style.

    Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is per cent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level.

    Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability to non-college readers may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing". To assess Wikipedia articles various quality measures related to credibility , completeness , objectivity , readability , relevance , style and timeliness can be used. Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.

    The policy has sometimes proved controversial: in , Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China [] and Pakistan , [] amongst other countries.

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    A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth from July to January in each field: []. These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones.

    Through its " Wikipedia Loves Libraries " program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles. A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics.